The house of the poor
In Moscow and other Russian cities, anciently ustroilis Miserable houses, or Scutelnicu, following the example of the village (fields) scutelnicu in Jerusalem for the burial of the strange, i.e. the Jews who came from distant countries to worship God in the temple of Jerusalem and, in case of a sudden death, naimisha there are special cemeteries.In Russia, such places were called scutelnicu, miserable houses, gelnique, Bovidae and gnomai; in the delivered there sheds with amnicum were brought and laid the body of the poor, Strannik, caught by a sudden and violent death, while others, admonished before the death of St. Secrets buried in churches.
In Moscow, as in other Russian cities, anciently ustroilis Miserable houses, or Scutelnicu, following the example of the village (fields) scutelnicu in Jerusalem for the burial of the strange, i.e. the Jews who came from distant countries to worship God in the temple of Jerusalem and, in case of a sudden death, naimisha there are special cemeteries.In Russia, such places were called scutelnicu, miserable houses, gelnique, Bovidae and gnomai; in the delivered there sheds with amnicum were brought and laid the body of the poor, Strannik, caught by a sudden and violent death, while others, admonished before the death of St. Secrets buried in churches. In addition to permanent scutelnic in the cities, there were also temporary, arranged on special occasions. According to the story of Abraham Palitsyn, during the reign of Boris Godunov, during a terrible crop failure, died from hunger, 127,000 corpses were buried on three poor houses, except for those buried near parish churches. The bodies lay in Squalid houses without burial until the seventh Thursday of Easter, or before the Cover of the Mother of God, due to the belief, according to the legend of Maxim the Greek, that «burial for the sake of drowned and killed, there are fertile cold earth vegetations.” But foreigners who did not understand the spirit and beliefs of the Russian people, believed the reason for that in the severity of the climate. Fletcher, had seen in Moscow, in the sixteenth century, scutelnicu, said that “winter in Russia, land of cold so hardened that it is impossible to dig graves, so all the bodies dumped in a public place, called God's house, where they freeze from the cold. At the onset of spring and on the melting of ice, betray them to the ground, covering their nakedness with clothes: what are the prayers for the dead.». “Rich people”, according to Prince Buchkovska in the XVI century, «Muscovites are buried in podtelkova, and for the burial of the rabble and the poor, rip a big hole into which the deceased is placed, not covering the ground, without ceremony of any kind. After three or four months, there stroyut house (domunculum) and betray body a proper burial, and with great concourse of neighbors and neighbors that accompany them weeping and wailing. Such ceremonies are performed three times a year.” The Sofia annals, under the year 1474 complements the story of foreign travelers following description of this solemn and touching ceremony: “a Man in the city of Moscow went according to custom to the village scutelnicu, who have gragani the strange burial custom of the same keahou Thursday sedilia week (for Easter), walks tamo, and copahu tuto Canon and soma and the IsDB Torah of the dead and sirabaha old pit, others like a full dead nakladany and new escapou. The same TNI and digging and covered the earth for God's sake, but, all ye grahne husbands and wives.” Not meaning a specific place such scutelnicu in Moscow, like the Prince Buchowska and Fletcher, Sofia annals determines only the time and the burial there of the poor. Maxim the Greek speaks not only to Strannik, that believed in a Squalid house, but also about utoplennica and killed, which according to the legend Prince Buchkovska, buried in scutelnicu, the year three times.
The court doctor of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, Samuel Collins, as an eyewitness, so describes to you the Miserable house in Moscow: «the bodies of the dead and frozen are brought to the Zemstvo Order, where they are exhibited for three or four days. If there are no relatives and friends, they are taken to a large dungeon with vaults, called the house of God. Put there by hundreds, and by two hundred corpses, which the priests burial service in the spring, covered the ground”. Collins again does not mean this place in Moscow, although there were in the chapels, churches, convents and spalah not one such scutelnicu, but a lot. Until now, the nicknames of the tracts used in the Moscow world remind us of the disgraced cemeteries of the dead without Christian guidance. These are the churches: on the old Squalid houses or on the Church Of St. John the warrior, that the former Holy cross monastery, Holy. Nicholas bozhedomskoe that the current ringers, Rozhdestvenka St. Friday bozhedomskoe, or on Bozhedomka Prechistenskaya in part, on the'tsy or Mogilitsa of the Dormition of the Mother of God near Prechistenka, on the Poor houses of the Pokrovsky monastery and St. in addition, bozhedomskoe was Andronikovskaya monasteries, St. Andrew and varsonof'evskiy.
from time to time the Orthodox Church issued special rules on who to put on Poor houses, which were given different purposes. Patriarch Filaret 1619 found there to be buried without a funeral service for those “who wine obopyutsya, or slaughter, or swing kill, or mapuches, drown, or poison themselves, or that what is bad themselves above him commit.”
on the Contrary, the last Patriarch Adrian, prescribes instructions to clerical elders: “suicide and killed in robbery and theft not to put in the cemeteries and needy homes, but to bury in the woods or in a field of remembrance in the Semikov. If the thief and robber at death will be confessed and Holy communion. Tain, then put them without a funeral service in the city in a Miserable house, & laquo;where such thieves and robbers are put.» There were taken the corpses of the executed,disgraced, and with the reign of Peter I, anatomically in hospitals. The custodians of such tombs have been boredom, bogatye, bogorny. Scutelnicu also took the place of foster houses. There were thrown illegally-born babies, who were brought up by the alms of God and from where sometimes took them to themselves childless spouses, instead of children, under the name of Bogdanov.
the Orthodox Church, like a compassionate mother, and not forgetting the unfortunate decisi its own, is not deprived of his remembrance it deprived the established burial and excommunicated from cemeteries. In his prayer at the Vespers of Pentecost day, she strongly advocates for the poor of God, grasped in vain, and violent death, popularnych lightning, frozen from the cold, drowned, killed in battle, or robbers, poisoned, etc. Cathedral 1548 agreed “to make a General commemoration for all who died a sudden death”. In the Synodikon were made to commemorate and put in scutelnicu. So in one Synod, compiled, with the blessing of job the Patriarch, read: & laquo;Remember,Lord, the soul, even in the poor women lying, father and our brethren, male and female.”
rudder even allows you to make supplication on suicide, “if it be in truth the mind is destroyed,” i.e., to madness. In another Synod, written in 1685: & laquo;Remember, Lord, the souls of the poor and the poor, the poor and the unbaptized babies, the neglect of the father and the mother of the dead, and in the poor lying brethren of our".
Semik, and the feast of the Intercession on the houses have been Miserable procession of the cathedrals and monasteries, for the administration of General pannychida. Patriarch “is sending the authorities but with them, archimandrites and abbots to read the burial service over the dead: Andronevskaya Archimandrite, St. Abbot, priest with the Cathedral in Chernihiv, Yes Rozhdestvensky priest from under the Bell with the Cathedral over the Yauza river, in Sretensky collars Archimandrite Peter, the Abbot of the Sretensky, Pokrovsky, Archpriest with the Moat, Archpriest Alexander with Cathedral». In addition to Semik, the day of the Intercession of the Mother of God, according to the Patriarchal decree, the house of the Poor (probably in the convent of the intercession), Archimandrite and power walked with crosses and images of the Cathedral pannichida.
Following the native custom, and the Church commandments, accompanied the procession the crowds and the poor in this Vale of death, where he called the Christians and the blessed precept of Vladimir Monomakh: “over a dead man go, thou, all ye of Martini ESMI”. Many were brought into Miserable houses, coffins and shrouds and brought the shirt, bought it eves and candles.
They did not know how to name the commemorates, "says the historian," but thought that God hears and knows for whom these pure, uncorrupted, truly Christian prayers are being sent to him." In the analysis of bodies in barns and jamnica, sought out relatives and friends; the pious was jealous example ye that labor, i.e. in the primary gravediggers of the Church, that the Liturgy offering prayer; they bare hands operatively stinking corpses of human beings and the idea about the General perishability, including the disgusting appearance and stench, disregarding the danger to get infected, they put on their shirts and shrouds and put into coffins, then covered with earth that was worn in pripal from one well to another. After pannikhida, the poor were distributed alms in remembrance of the buried. Participants in this cause of piety and humanity washed their hands in the near pond, or river. When the poor houses were chapels, or prayer a mansion to shelter the procession of the cross, also prose, or partini, where, after the burial of the poor, a bowl full of foamy wine replaced the Cup of consolation of the dead, which says Jeremiah, XVI, 7.
This touching custom was stopped with the Moscow plague, after which established a special cemetery and forbidden to be buried in the parish churches, in addition to Andronikov and Pokrovsky monasteries; in the first, by order of the authorities, entombed over the nobles, and the other merchants and tradesmen. No more than at the beginning of this century, dug the grave hills at the Church of St. John the warrior on Bozhedomka and at the intercession monastery in Poor homes. Their traces were opened, when digging the ground on Semenovskaya street against the monastery itself, where a lot of human bones were found.